Sunday, 5 July 2015

Aflatoxins contamination risks in Pharmaceuticals

Aflatoxin contamination risks in pharmaceuticals

Aflatoxins are naturally occurring fungal metabolites. They are highly toxic compounds and can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and many other animals. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic and genotoxic, they can associated with liver cancer.Aflatoxin is naturally occurring mycotoxin produced mainly by two types of mould, Aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. These causative organisms can grow on crops such as peanuts,wheat,corn,beans and rice. Aspergillus flavus is common and wide spread in nature. The occurrence of aflatoxin is influenced by certain environmental  factors, hence the extent of contamination will vary with geographical location. At least 13 different types of aflatoxins are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1,which is considered as most toxic.There are 4 major aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 & G2.The B series contain a cyclopentone ring,instead of a D lactone ring in the G series,this difference being responsible for higher toxicity of B series. Aflatoxin is  recognized as an important food safety risk worldwide, even though it’s potential risks with regards to pharmaceutical industry cannot be ruled out.

Important Facts to Remember…….

·       Aflatoxin, produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on crops such as maize, peanuts, and tree nuts, are ubiquitous contaminates of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world.
·       Aflatoxin exposures multiplicatively increase the
risk of liver cancer.
·       The adverse health consequences of aflatoxins in
populations are quite varied, eliciting acute effects, such as rapid death, and chronic outcomes,
such as hepatocellular carcinoma.

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