Sunday, 4 December 2011

Defenitions of Dosage Forms

Applications: These are fluids or semi-fluid preparations intended for application to the skin.

Cachets: Cachets are moulded from rice paper, a material made by pouring a mixture of rice flour and water between two hot polished revolving cylinders; these are used to enclose the nauseous or disagreeable powders in tasteless powders for administration.

Collodions: These are fluid preparations for external use. These are applied with the help of a brush or rod. After application volatile solvent evaporates leaving flexible, protective film covering the site.

Draughts: Draughts are liquid oral preparations of which only one or two rather large doses of the order of 50ml are prescribed. Each dose is issued in separate container.

Dusting Powders: These are powders which are in a fine state of subdivision, for external applications.

They are not to be applied to the broken skin. Dusting powders are sterile powders.

Ear Drops: These are solutions of drugs that are instilled into the ear with a dropper.
Elixirs: These are clear liquids oral preparations of potent or nauseous drug. They are pleasantly flavoured and usually attractively coloured.

Emulsions: These are biphasic dispersed liquid dosage forms, in which two immiscible liquids are mixed with the help of emulsifying agent.

Enemas: An emulsion is solutions suspensions or oil in water emulsion of medicaments intended for rectal use.

Gargles: It is aqueous solutions used to prevent or treat throat infections. Usually they are dispensed in concentrated forms with directions for dilution with warm water before use.

Effervescent Granules: These are the mixture of citric acid and tartaric acid with sodium-bi –carbonate.

One or more Organoleptic agents are used. After addition of granules in to water bicarbonate reacts with bicarbonates and produces carbonic acid and preparation is taken during effervescence and immediately afterward.

Inhalations: There are liquid preparations of or containing volatile substance.
These are used to relieve conjection and inflammation of the respiratory tract infections.

Insufflations: These are medicated ducting powders that are blown by insufflators into regions such as the nose, throat, body cavities and the ear to which it would be difficult to apply the powder directly.

Irrigations: These are solutions of medicaments used to treat infections of the bladder, vaginal and less often the nose. Thin soft rubber tubes used for irrigation solutions administration are Catheter. (Bladder) A vulcanite or plastic pipe (Vagina), Special Glass Irrigator (nose).

Jellies (Gels): Jellies are transparent or translucent nongreasy semi-solid preparations mainly used externally.

Linctuses: These are viscous liquids, oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of cough. The dose in small and to ensure prolonged action, they should be sipped slowly and swallowed neat.

Liniments: These are fluid semi-solid or semi-fluid preparations intended for application to the skin. These are rubbed to affected area of skin for their counter irritant or stimulating effect but some are applied on a warm dressing or with a brush for analgesic and soothing effect. They should not be applied to broken skin.

Lotions: These are fluid preparations for external application without friction.

Lozenges (Troches): These are solid dosage forms consisting mainly of sugar and gum, the gum give hardness and cohesiveness and ensuring slow release of the medicaments. They are used to medicate the mouth and throat and for slow administration of the indigestion and cough remedies.

Mixtures: These are the most common form of liquid orals preparations usually with aqueous vehicle and the medicaments may be in solution or suspension.

Mouthwashes: These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth.

Nasal Drops: These are solutions of drugs that are instilled into the nose with a dropper. They are usually aqueous because oily drops inhibit movement of cilia in the nasal mucosa and long term use may cause Lipoidal Pneumonia.

Ointment: These are semi-solids, greasy preparations for external use to skin, rectum and nasal mucosa.

Paediatric Drops: Occasionally, the children’s dose of a preparation is very small and stability considerations preclude dilution to 5ml. Then the dose is prescribed as a fraction of ML and is given by a calibrated dropper.

Paints: These are liquids for application to the skin or mucosa usually with a soft brush. Skin paints often have a volatile solvent that evaporates quickly to leave a dry or resinous film of medicament.

Pastes: These are semi-solid preparation of external application that differs from similar products in containing high proportion of finely powdered medicaments. The base may be anhydrous or water soluble. Heir stiffness makes them useful as protective coating.

Pastilles: Pastilles are solid medicated preparations intended to dissolve slowly in the mouth. They are softer than lozenges and their basis is either glycerol or acacia and sugar.

Pills: Pills are oral dosage forms that have largely been replaced by tablets and capsules. They are spherical or less often ovoid and usually Sugar-Coated.

Poultices: These are paste like preparations used externally to reduce inflammation because they retain heat well. After heating, the preparation is spread thickly on a dressing and applied, as hot as the patient can bear it to the affected area.

Powders: Powders may be defined as the fine particles which are result of communation or granulation of the dry substance.

A powder can be mixture of drugs or chemicals which are uniformly mixed together and presented in dry form. Powders are intended for Internal and External usages.

Solutions: These are used for many purposes. For some of these sterility is necessary e.g. Parenteral, Peritoneal dialysis and Anticoagulant solutions, Bladder irrigations and Dermatological solutions for application to broken skin. Non sterile solutions are used orally and externally.

Solution Tablets: These are compressed tablets that are dissolved in water to produce solution for application to the skin or mucosa. They are formed to dissolve quickly.

Sprays: Sprays are preparations of drugs in aqueous, alcoholic or glycerine containing media. They are applied to the mucosa of nose or throat with an atomizer or nebuliser.

Syrups: These are aqueous concentrated, sucrose solutions with or without one or medicaments.

Organoleptic agents are added in syrups.

Vitrellae: Are thin walled glass capsule containing a volatile ingredients and protected by absorbent cotton wool and an outer silk bag. For use, in angina pectoris, these capsules are crushed and the Vapours are inhaled.

Extracts: These are concentrated preparations containing the active principles of vegetable or animal drugs. The drugs are extracted with suitable solvents and the product is concentrated to liquid or dry or soft mass extracts.

Infusions: Fresh infusions made by extracting drugs for a short time with cold or boiling water are no longer used because they quickly deteriorate as a result of microbial contamination and therefore must be used within 12 hours of preparation.

Oxymels: As the name suggests these are preparations in which the vehicle is a mixture of acid (Acetic) and Honey.

Spirits: Spirits are alcoholic or Hydro-alcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Most are used are flavouring agents but a few have medicinal values.

Tinctures: These are alcoholic preparations containing the active principles of vegetable drugs. They are relatively weak compared with extracts.

1 comment:

  1. Unlike today’s modern Gelatin capsules, in previous decades, pharmaceutical companies that produced medications for oral ingestion were only able to offer their products in tablet form. Essentially, the medication to be used in the tablet would be mixed with binding agents and hardened, producing a solid pill. These medications, although effective, often took long periods of time to digest, meaning the time needed for the medication to be absorbed was longer, and they were often hard to swallow. In 1834, however, the pharmaceutical company Mothes and Dublanc began producing a different type of capsule made using gelatin.